Here is a small collection of information regarding energy use that I found helpful. If you know any other publicly available data sets containing either device measurements or measurements for entire households, please email me so I can add them.
The author offers measurements from his house in the US for two years in 1 minute resolution.
IEEE Intelligent Data Mining and Analysis Datasets
The Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal has a collection of 9 Households in 5 min resolution here.
Tracebase offers a sample of dozen device measurements in 1s resolution.
IZES Smart meter
IZES did a measurement of 500 households at 15 min resolution.
Lists a lot of different devices with the average power consumption and/or average energy consumption per run.
The owner wired up his house completely and makes the current situation in his house available on the net.